Karakteristik ekologi, kondisi kesehatan dan tingkat kerawanan degradasi mangrove saat penginisiasian KKPD Rupat Utara 2018

Syahrial Syahrial, Riri Ezraneti, Bintal Amin, Nur Safira, Dodi Fan Halen Siregar

Abstract


The study of ecological characteristics, health conditions and the level of vulnerability of mangrove degradation when initiating North Rupat as a Regional Aquatic Conservation Area (KKPD) was conducted in July 2018 with the aim of future baseline data and comparison. Data collection on the condition of mangrove vegetation is carried out by making line transects and plots drawn from the reference point (outermost mangrove stands) in a direction perpendicular to the coastline to the mainland. The results of the study showed that 12 identified species. The diversity index and dominance are relatively low (H’ ≤ 2.0 and 0 < C ≤ 0.5), while the uniformity is classified as stable (0.75 < E ≤ 1). For the density of mangroves the highest category of trees is at Station 4 (2525 ind/ha ± 638.15), while the density of saplings and seedlings at Station 1 (2800 ind/ha ± 873.48 and 50000 ind/ha ± 17638.34), where Xylocarpus granatum is the dominant species in the tree and seedling category (Importance Value Index/IVI 191.74% and 240.80%), while Avicennia alba was for the saplings category (IVI 216.01%). In the main land part of the North Rupat KKPD area, the mangroves' health condition was increasingly threatened by destruction compared to the small islands around it. However, overall the level of vulnerability of mangrove degradation in the initiating area of North Rupat KKPD is still relatively low.


Keywords


ecological characteristics; health conditions; degradation vulnerability; mangroves; KKPD; North Rupat

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aboudha, P. A. W., & Kairo, J. G. (2001). Human-induced stresses on mangrove swamps along the Kenyan coast. Hydrobiologia. 458(1-3): 255 – 265. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013130916811.

[ABS] Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2002). Year Book Australia 2002. Canberra, Australia. 893 p.

Al-Khayat, J. A., Abdulla, M. A., & Alatalo, J. M. (2019). Diversity of benthic macrofauna and physical parameters of sediments in natural mangroves and in afforested mangroves three decades after compensatory planting. Aquatic Sciences. 81(4): 1 – 11. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00027-018-0599-7.

Alongi, D. M. (2018). Impact of global change on nutrient dynamics in mangrove forests. Forests. 9(10): 1 – 13. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/f9100596.

Angulo, V. J. A., & Hatcher, B. G. (2010). A new typology of benefits derived from marine protected areas. Marine Policy. 34: 635 – 644. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.marpol.2009.12.002.

Baderan, D. W.K. (2017). Distribusi spasial dan luas kerusakan hutan mangrove di wilayah pesisir Kwandang Kabupaten Gorontalo Utara Provinsi Gorontalo. GeoEco. 3(1): 1 – 8.

Bayen, S. (2012). Occurrence, bioavailability and toxic effects of trace metals and organic contaminants in mangrove ecosystems: A review. Environment International. 48: 84 – 101. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2012.07.008.

Bengen, D. G. (2004). Pedoman Teknis Pengenalan dan Pengelolaan Ekosistem Mangrove. Pusat Kajian Sumberdaya Pesisir dan Lautan, IPB. Bogor, Indonesia.

Bosire, J. O., Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Walton, M., Crona, B. I., Lewis III, R. R., Field, C., Kairo, J. G., & Koedam, N. (2008). Functionality of restored mangroves: A review. Aquatic Botany. 89(2): 251 – 259. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2008.03.010.

[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Bengkalis. (2016). Kecamatan Rupat Utara Dalam Angka 2016. Bengkalis, Indonesia. 77 hal.

[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Bengkalis. (2017). Kecamatan Rupat Utara Dalam Angka 2017. Bengkalis, Indonesia. 66 hal.

Brown, B. (2007). Resilience Thinking Applied to the Mangroves of Indonesia. IUCN & Mangrove Action Project. Yogyakarta, Indonesia. 53 p.

Budiasih, R., Supriharyono, & Muskananfola, M. R. (2015). Analisis kandungan bahan organik, nitrat, fosfat pada sedimen di kawasan mangrove jenis Rhizophora dan Avicennia di Desa Timbulsloko, Demak. Management of Aquatic Resources. 4(3): 66 – 75.

Chakraborty, S. K. (2013). Interactions of environmental variables determining the biodiversity of coastal-mangrove ecosystem of West Bengal, India. The Ecoscan. 3(Special): 251 – 265.

Chen, G. C., & Ye, Y. (2011). Restoration of Aegiceras corniculatum mangroves in Jiulongjiang Estuary changed macro-benthic faunal community. Ecological Engineering. 37(2): 224 – 228. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.10.003.

Diop, E. S., Soumare, A., Diallo, N., & Guisse, A. (1997). Recent changes of the mangroves of the Saloum River Estuary, Senegal. Mangroves and Salt Marshes. 1(3): 163 – 172. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009900724172.

Eslami-Andargoli, L., Dale, P. E. R., Sipe, N., & Chaseling, J. (2010). Local and landscape effects on spatial patterns of mangrove forest during wetter and drier periods: Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 89(1): 53 – 61. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2010.05.011.

Feller, I. C., Lovelock, C. E., Berger, U., McKee, K. L., Joye, S. B., & Ball, M. C. (2010). Biocomplexity in mangrove ecosystems. Annual Review of Marine Science. 2: 395 – 417. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163809.

Friess, D. A., & Webb, E. L. (2013). Variability in mangrove change estimates and implications for the assessment of ecosystem service provision. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 23(7): 715 – 725. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/geb.12140.

Gaut, B. S. (2018). A convergent outcome: Small genomes in mangroves. New Phytologist. 217(1): 5 – 7. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.14906.

Giri, C., Zhu, Z., Tieszen, L. L., Singh, A., Gillette, S., & Kelmelis, J. A. (2008). Mangrove forest distributions and dynamics (1975 – 2005) of the tsunami-affected region of Asia. Biogeography. 35(3): 519 – 528. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2007.01806.x.

Giri, C., Ochieng, E., Tieszen, L. L., Zhu, A., Singh, A., Loveland, T., Masek, J., & Duke, N. (2011). Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 20(1): 154 – 159. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.14668238.2010.00584.x.

Hamilton, S. (2013). Assessing the role of commercial aquaculture in displacing mangrove forest. Bulletin of Marine Science. 89(2): 585 – 601. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5343/bms.2012.1069.

Hamilton, S. E., & Casey, D. (2016). Creation of a high spatio-temporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st century (CGMFC-21). Global Ecology and Biogeography. 25(6): 729 – 738. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/geb.12449.

Hamzah, F., & Pancawati, Y. (2013). Fitoremidiasi logam berat dengan menggunakan mangrove. Ilmu Kelautan. 18(4): 203 – 212. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ik.ijms.

Hamzah, F., & Setiawan, A. (2010). Akumulasi logam berat Pb, Cu, dan Zn di hutan mangrove Muara Angke, Jakarta Utara. Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis. 2(2): 41 – 52.

Harkes, I. H. T., Drengstig, A., Kumara, M. P., Jayasinghe, J. M. P. K., & Huxham, M. (2015). Shrimp aquaculture as a vehicle for climate compatible development in Sri Lanka: The case of Puttalam Lagoon. Marine Policy. 61: 273 – 283. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2015.08.003.

Haron, N. W., & Taha, R. M. (2010). Taxonomy, distribution and propagation of Xylocarpus species at Carey Island – The Heritage Island of Malaysia. Proceedings 2nd International Conference on Landscape and Urban Hort. 9 – 13 Juni 2009. Bologna, Italy. 997 – 1004.

Hartati, & Harudu, L. (2016). Identifikasi jenis-jenis kerusakan ekosistem hutan mangrove akibat aktivitas manusia di Kelurahan Lowulowu Kecamatan Lea-Lea Kota Baubau. Penelitian Pendidikan Geografi. 1(1): 30 – 45.

Hishamunda, N., Ridler, N. B., Bueno, P., & Yap, W. G. (2009). Commercial aquaculture in Southeast Asia: Some policy lessons. Food Policy. 34(1): 102 – 107. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2008.06.006.

Holguin, G., Vazquez, P., & Bashan, Y. (2001). The role of sediment microorganisms in the productivity, conservation, and rehabilitation of mangrove ecosystems: An overview. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 33(4): 265 – 278. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003740000319.

Ilman, M., Dargusch, P., Dart, P., & Onrizal. (2016). A historical analysis of the drivers of loss and degradation of Indonesia’s mangroves. Land Use Policy. 54: 448 – 459. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.03.010.

Indriyanto. (2008). Ekologi Hutan. Bumi Aksara. Jakarta, Indonesia. 210 hal.

Ishak, & Saputra, I. A. (2015). Pengaruh aktivitas penduduk terhadap kerusakan hutan mangrove di Desa Lalombi Kecamatan Banawa Selatan. GeoTadulako. 3(6): 52 – 63.

Jin-Eong, O. (1995). The ecology of mangrove conservation & management. Hydrobiologia. 295(1-3): 343 – 351. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00029141.

Jugale, S., Bhosale, L. J., Kad, T. D., & Nadaf, A. B. (2009). Genetic diversity assessment in intra- and inter-populations of Xylocarpus granatum Koen.: A critically endangered and narrowly distributed species of Maharashtra. Current Science. 97(5): 695 – 701.

Kamal, E., & Haris, H. (2014). Komposisi dan vegetasi hutan mangrove di pulau-pulau kecil di Pasaman Barat. Ilmu Kelautan. 19(2): 113 – 120. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/ 10.14710/ik.ijms.19.2.113-120.

Kamali, B., & Hashim, R. (2011). Mangrove restoration without planting. Ecological Engineering. 37(2): 387 – 391. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.11.025.

Kaunang, T. D., & Kimbal, J. D. (2009). Komposisi dan struktur vegetasi hutan mangrove di Taman Nasional Bunaken Sulawesi Utara. Agritek. 17(6): 1163 – 1171.

Kuenzer, C., Bluemel, A., Gebhardt, S., Quoc, T. V., & Dech, S. (2011). Remote sensing of mangrove ecosystems: A review. Remote Sensing. 3(5): 878 – 928. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs3050878.

Kulkarni, V. A., Jagtap, T. G., Mhalsekar, N. M., & Naik, A. N. (2010). Biological and environmental characteristics of mangrove habitats from Manori Creek, West Coast, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 168(1-4): 587 – 596. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1136-x.

Kusmana, C. (2011). Management of mangrove ecosystem in Indonesia. Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan. 1(2): 152 – 157. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29244/jpsl.1.2.152.

Lestari, F. (2013). Identifikasi kondisi ekosistem mangrove di kawasan pesisir Pulau Dompak Tanjungpinang. Agriplus. 23(2): 92 – 97.

Lewis, R. R. (1976). Impacts of dredging in the Tampa Bay Estuary, 1876 – 1976. Proceedings of The Second Annual Conference of The Coastal Society. 1976 November 17 – 20. New Orleans, Louisiana. 31 – 55 p.

Li, M. S., & Lee, S. Y. (1997). Mangroves of China: A brief review. Forest Ecology and Management. 96(3): 241 – 259. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(97)00054-6.

Lovelock, C. E., Feller, I. C., McKee, K. L., Engelbrecht, B. M. J., & Ball, M. C. (2004). The effect of nutrient enrichment on growth, photosynthesis and hydraulic conductance of dwarf mangroves in Panama. Functional Ecology. 18(1): 25 – 33. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0269-8463.2004.00805.x.

Macnae, W. (1968). A general account of the fauna and flora of mangrove swamps and forests in The Indo-West-Pacific region. Advances in Marine Biology. 6: 73 – 270. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2881(08)60438-1.

Magris, R. A., & Barreto, R. (2010). Mapping and assessment of protection of mangrove habitats in Brazil. Pan-American Journal of Aquatic Sciences. 5(4): 546 – 556.

Marfai, M. A., Almohammad, H., Dey, S., Susanto, B., & King, L. (2008). Coastal dynamic and shoreline mapping: Multi-sources spatial data analysis in Semarang Indonesia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 142(1-3): 297 – 308. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-9929-2.

Martinuzzi, S., Gould, W. A., Lugo, A. E., & Medina, E. (2009). Conversion and recovery of Puerto Rican mangroves: 200 years of change. Forest Ecology and Management. 257(1): 75 – 84. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.08.037.

Mastaller, M. (1997). Mangrove: The Forgotten Forest Between Land and Sea. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Mayaux, P., Holmgren, P., Achard, F., Eva, H., Stibig, H., & Branthomme, A. (2005). Tropical forest cover change in the 1990s and options for future monitoring. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences. 360(1454): 373 – 384. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2004.1590.

McGuinness, K. A. (1997). Seed predation in a tropical mangrove forest: A test of the dominance-predation model in northern Australia. Tropical Ecology. 3(2): 293 – 302. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400010464.

[MNLH] Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup. (2004). Keputusan Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup Tentang Kriteria Baku dan Pedoman Penentuan Kerusakan Mangrove No. 201. Jakarta, Indonesia.

Mughofar, A., Masykuri, M., & Setyono, P. (2018). Zonasi dan komposisi vegetasi hutan mangrove Pantai Cengkrong Desa Karanggandu Kabupaten Trenggalek Provinsi Jawa Timur. Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan. 8( 1): 77 – 85. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.29244/jpsl.8.1.77-85.

Mulholland, D. A., & Taylor, D. A. H. (1992). Limonoids from Australian members of the Meliaceae. Phytochemistry. 31(12): 4163 – 4166. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-

(92)80434-G.

Noor, Y. R., Khazali, M., & Suryadiputra, I. N. N. (2006). Panduan Pengenalan Mangrove di Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia. 227 hal.

Nurhamiyawan, E. N. L., Prihandono, B., & Helmi. (2013). Analisis dinamika model kompetisi dua populasi yang hidup besama di titik kesetimbangan tidak terdefinisi. Buletin Ilmiah Matematika, Statistika dan Terapan. 2(3): 197 – 204.

Onrizal. (2010). Perubahan tutupan hutan mangrove di pantai Timur Sumatera Utara periode 1977-2006. Biologi Indonesia. 6(2): 163 – 172. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14203/jbi.v6i2.3154.

Osland, M., Feher, L., Griffith, K., Cavanaugh, K., Enwright, N., Day, R. H., Stagg, C. L., Krauss, K. W., Howard, R. J., Grace, J. B., & Rogers, K. (2016). Climatic controls on the global distribution, abundance and species richness of mangrove forests. Ecological Monographs. 87(2): 341 – 359. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecm.1248.

Polania, J., Urrego, L. E., & Agudelo, C. M. (2015). Recent advances in understanding Colombian mangroves. Acta Oecologica. 63: 82 – 90. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2015.01.001.

Prasad, M. B. K. (2012). Nutrient stoichiometry and eutrophication in Indian mangroves. Environmental Earth Sciences. 67(1): 293 – 299. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12665-011-1508-8.

Pulumahuny, F. S. (2003). Hutan mangrove di pulau-pulau kecil Kepulauan Yamdena Maluku Tenggara. Pesisir dan Pantai Indonesia. 8: 33 – 42.

Purnobasuki, H. (2011). Ancaman terhadap hutan mangrove di Indonesia dan langkah strategis pencegahannya. Bulletin PSL Universitas Surabaya. 25: 3 – 6.

Rakotomavo, A., & Fromard, F. (2010). Dynamics of mangrove forests in the Mangoky River delta, Madagascar, under the influence of natural and human factors. Forest Ecology and Management. 259(6): 1161 – 1169. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.01.002.

Richards, D. R., & Friess, D. A. (2016). Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000–2012. Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences. 113(2): 344 – 349. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1510272113.

Riyadi, S., & Sarni. (2018). Kapasitas adaptif mangrove pada pulau kecil mikro studi di Pulau Maitara Kota Tidore Kepulauan Propinsi Maluku Utara. Biologi Tropis. 18(2): 123 – 133. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.29303/jbt.v18i2.801.

Saheb, S. K. B., Kishore, I. V., Babu, K., Rosaiah, G., & Mallikarjuna, K. (2015). Diversity of seed germination in Xylocarpus species. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 6(2): B846 – B854.

Salm, R. V., Clark, J. R., & Siirila, E. 2010. Marine and Coastal Protected Areas: A Guide for Planners and Managemnet. Gland, Swisterland. 396 p.

Sandilyan, S., & Kathiresan, K. 2012. Mangrove conservation: A global perspective. Biodiversity and Conservation. 21(14): 3523 – 3542. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-012-0388-x.

Saru, A., Amri, K., & Mardi. (2017). Konektivitas struktur vegetasi mangrove dengan keasaman dan bahan organik total pada sedimen di Kecamatan Wonomulyo Kabupaten Polewali Mandar. Spermonde. 3(1): 1 – 6.

Schaduw, J. N. W. (2018). Struktur komunitas dan keberlanjutan pengelolaan ekosistem mangrove pulau-pulau kecil (Kasus pada Pulau Nain Kabupaten Minahasa Utara Provinsi Sulawesi Utara). Ilmu Lingkungan. 16(2): 120 – 129. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.14710/jil.16.2.120-129.

Schaduw, J. N. W., Yulianda, F., Bengen, D. G., & Setyobudiandi, I. (2011). Pengelolaan ekosistem mangrove pulau-pulau kecil Taman Nasional Bunaken berbasis kerentanan. Agrisains. 12(3): 173 – 181.

Setiawan, H., & Mursidin. (2018). Karakteristik ekologi dan kesehatan hutan mangrove di Pulau Tanakeke Sulawesi Selatan. Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea. 7(1): 47 – 58.

Setyobudiandi, I., Sulistiono, Yulianda, F ., Kusmana, C., Hariyadi, S., Damar, A., Sembiring, A., & Bahtiar. (2009). Sampling dan Analisis Data Perikanan dan Kelautan: Terapan Metode Pengambilan Contoh di Wilayah Pesisir dan Laut. Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor, Indonesia.

Simon, L. N., & Raffaelli, D. (2012). Assessing ecosystem effects of small–scale cutting of Cameroon mangrove forests. Ecology and the Natural Environment. 4(5): 126 – 134. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JENE11.131.

Smith, K. A., Ball, T., Conen, F., Dobbie, K. E., Massheder, J., & Rey, A. (2003). Exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere: Interactions of soil physical factors and biological processes. European Journal of Soil Science. 54(4): 779 – 791. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1351-0754.2003.0567.x.

Sulistiyowati, H. (2009). Biodiversitas mangrove di Cagar Alam Pulau Sempu. Sainstek. 8(1): 59 – 63.

Syah, C., Indrawan, A., & Priyono, A. (2012). Pertumbuhan Rhizophora mucronata pada lahan restorasi mangrove di Hutan Lindung Angke Kapuk, Jakarta. Bonorowo Wetlands. 2(1): 1 – 10. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13057/wetlands/w020101.

Syahrial, & Novita, M. Z. (2018). Inventarisasi mangrove dan gastropoda di Pulau Tunda Serang Banten, Indonesia serta distribusi spasial dan konektivitasnya. Saintek Perikanan. 13(2): 94 – 99. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.14710/ijfst.13.2.94-99.

Syahrial, & Sastriawan, Y. (2018). Pola sebaran, indikator kualitas lingkungan dan ekologi komunitas mangrove Pulau Tunda. Saintek Perikanan. 14(1): 43 – 50. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.14710/ijfst.14.1.43-51.

Syahrial, Lubis, K. M., Pranata, E., Hamdani, R., Syahrian, W., Purnama, D. P., Kaprisal, & Hutasuhut, M. D. (2017). Variasi geografik kerapatan mangrove dan kepadatan gastropoda serta keterkaitannya di Pulau Tunda Serang Banten, Indonesia. Biowallacea. 4(2): 591 – 601. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.33772/biowallacea.v4i2.4232.

Syahrial, Karsim, N., & Lubis, K. M. (2018a). Keanekaragaman hayati mangrove sejati di Pulau Miangas. Maspari. 10(2): 207 – 216. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.36706/maspari.v10i2.5954.

Syahrial, Syahrian, W., & Heriyanto, T. (2018b). Inventarisasi dan pola penyebaran regenerasi alami semai mangrove sejati di Utara Indonesia. Perikanan dan Kelautan. 23(1): 39 – 46. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.31258/jpk.23.1.39-46.

Thomas, N., Lucas, R., Bunting, P., Hardy, A., Rosenqvist, A., & Simard, M. (2017). Distribution and drivers of global mangrove forest change, 1996 – 2010. Plos One. 12(6): 1 – 14. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179302.

[UNEP] The United Nations Environment Programme. (2014). The Importance of Mangroves to People: A Call to Action. Cambridge, England. 128 p.

Valenca, A. P. M. C., & Santos, P. J. P. (2012). Macrobenthic community for assessment of estuarine health in tropical areas(Northeast, Brazil): Review of macrofauna classification in ecological groups and application of AZTI Marine Biotic Index. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 64(9): 1809 – 1820. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.06.003.

Vane, C. H., Harrison, I., Kim, A. W., Moss-Hayes, V., Vickers, B. P., & Hong, K. (2009). Organic and metal contaminantion in surface mangrove sediments of South China. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 58(1): 134 – 144. DOI:

1016/j.marpolbul.2008.09.024.

Wang, L., Mu, M., Li, X., Lin, P., & Wang, W. (2011). Differentiation between true mangroves and mangrove associates based on leaf traits and salt contents. Plant Ecology. 4(4): 292 – 301. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpe/rtq008.

Wang, Y., Qiu, Q., Xin, G., Yang, Z., Zheng, J., Ye, Z., & Li, S. (2013). Heavy metal contamination in a vulnerable mangrove swamp in South China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 185(7): 5775 – 5787. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2983-4.

Ward, P. J., Marfai, M. A., Yulianto, F., Hizbaron, D. R., & Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2011). Coastal inundation and damage exposure estimation: A case study for Jakarta. Natural Hazards. 56(3): 899 – 916. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11069-010-9599-1.

Wiryawan, B., & Dermawan, A. (2006). Panduan Pengembagan Kawasan Konservasi Laut Daerah (Marine Management Area/MMA) di Wilayah Coremap II - Indonesia Bagian Barat. Editor: Suraji. Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Program II - Direktorat Jenderal Kelautan, Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil Departemen Kelautan dan Perikanan. Jakarta, Indonesia. 96 hal.

Woodroffe,C. D., & Grindrod, J. (1991). Mangrove biogeograhy: The role of quaternary environmental and sea-level change. Biogeography. 18(5): 479 – 492. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400002431.

Yan, L., & Xu, X. (2010). Assessing the vulnerability of social – Environmental system from the perspective of hazard, sensitivity and resilience: A case study of Beijing, China. Environmental Earth Sciences. 61(6): 1179-1186. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12665-009-0440-7.

Zainuri, A.M., Takwanto, A., & Syarifuddin, A. (2017). Konservasi ekologi hutan mangrove di kecamatan mayangan Kota Probolinggo. Dedikasi. 14: 1 – 7.

Zhang, Z., Xu, X., Sun, Y., Yu, S., Chen, Y., & Peng, J. (2014). Heavy metal and organic contaminants in mangrove ecosystems of China: A review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 21(20): 11938 – 11950. DOI:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3100-8.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31258/dli.8.1.p.1-11

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Universitas Riau

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 

Creative Commons License
Dinamika Lingkungan Indonesia Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.